Infection with HPV is very common in both sexes; the lifetime incidence is estimated at about 80% of at least one genital type of HPV. Transmission of genital HPV occurs mainly via sexual contact; transmission rates are 50% to 80% after unprotected sexual intercourse with a person infected with HPV. Less commonly, transmission can occur following non-penetrative genital contact. Less commonly, transmission can occur following non-penetrative genital contact.
A 2017 study conducted in Australia showed that from a sample of HPV-positive cervical cancers, 77.1% of cervical cancers contained HPV types 16 or 18, and 15.9% of cervical cancers contained HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52 or 58. In addition, HPV types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 37% and 8% of high grade cervical abnormalities, respectively. Australia had relatively low rates of incidence and mortality from cervical cancer, even before the introduction of the HPV vaccination program in 2007, due to the successful National Cervical Screening Program. In 2007, the age-standardised incidence rate of cervical cancer was 6.8 per 100,000, and the mortality rate was 1.8 deaths per 100,000 women Indigenous Australian women have an almost three times higher incidence rate of cervical cancer, and a five times greater mortality rate than non-Indigenous Australians, attributed to lower participation rates in cervical screening programs and a greater prevalence of cofactors for cervical cancer (e.g. smoking, earlier and more pregnancies, and lower socioeconomic status).
This interactive online learning activity is valued at 1 hour(s) of continuing education.
Dr. Catherine Streeton,
MD, MB, FAFPHM (RACP), MAppEpid, FACTM, CTH®
Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne, VIC
Senior Research Assistant
Queensland’s Children Medical Research Institute
Centre for Children’s Health Research
Queensland University, QLD
On completion of this program, participants will be better able to:
- Describe the risks of poor adherence to osteoporosis treatments and communicate these risks to patients.
- Review the issues underlying patient behaviours and attitudes towards osteoporosis treatment, particularly factors that lead to treatment cessation.
- Improve recall, reassessment and management of patients who have poor adherence and persistence with osteoporosis treatment.